In recent years, use the switching type power supply of microprocessor control to develop constantly. The advantage of comparing the analog power supply in the digital power still has a lot of disputes, two major about I, you of camp, dispute fierce.
In fact, every method has its own advantages and disadvantages. But the designers must all make the choice finally, it is to use the simulation solution to use the digital solution, and it takes the advantage and disadvantage of understanding each kind of scheme to make the wise decision.
Imitate the switching type power supply to already use for decades. Its design is known very well by people, and there are a lot of outstanding textbooks, artificial kit, application manual and seminar. There is a large amount of low-cost integrated circuit that numerous manufacturers offer, it capsulates a lot of functions, from integrated grid driver and switch to induction by current and protection. In a word, the digital power will make the surplus view of the analog power supply too forced in any case.
Digital control have some the intersection of simulation and characteristic that world does not have, its make switching type power supply design, have impossible function that realize so far. Just as other respects of the project, advantage these carry cost, choose, use the digital solution must surpass his problem brought to decide according to these advantage.
A frequent numerically controlled advantage mentioned is that it allows to remove some passive blocks in the control device, thus has dispelled assembly tolerance and aging question. In addition, this kind of advantage has greater value and far-reaching meaning even more in some application. For example, in some more than cycle designs, can concentrate control function on a device while using the digital processor, thus realize for example the power rail is arranged in an order, margin is set up, support the sharing, phase compensation and software and implement functions such as fault prediction,etc..
The modularization power designer has more advantages. Think about of power manufacturer has situation of a lot of different power level. Adopt the numerically controlled solution, can let a monoprocessor and self-defining software alone work in order to meet each power level’s demands together. While manufacturing on a large scale, the economic scale produced will be very enormous.
Before the digital power of inuse, certainly have some questions that must be considered too. PCB board-level space of the digital controller must include MCU, crystal clock, protection / filter and ADC pin is buffered. In addition, have some restrictions to dynamic range of PWM precision and ADC. Even so, some latest specialized MCU products of digital power can solve these problems of many great numbers.
It imitates another question that engineers afraid to be to know digital the intersection of designing technique and required time and energy these. In many cases, if has not kept in touch from Z changes and samples concept of theory,etc. usually graduating from that day! Fortunately, a lot of online tools are offered free now, its automatic foundation applies the norm of a frequency domain mechanically to convert a simulation design to the valent weight of discrete time. Biricha has offered several – day digital power design course, hope, know digital technique or hope, review engineer tailor of knowledge that neglect for a long time for those specially. In addition, Bodo Power will publish a series of technical article, the help in offering the figure PSU to the masses of simulation engineers to design of purport constantly in future several months.
In sum, the digital power is not ” magic bullet ” letting the analog power supply be redundant . Simulation and digital power will exist, and will live in harmony. If does not need extra digital control function, then undoubtedly the analog power supply is that the ideal is chosen. On the contrary, in have, regulate in the complex system of power level strictly while being numerous, demand control, data communication and flexible to control the cycle, the digital solution can play its due role even more at this moment. Fortunately, digital power supply control optimizes introduction and some new-type tool and appearance training of the microprocessor and let designers choose optimally for the application before one’s eyes Solution.
In recent years, use the switching type power supply of microprocessor control to develop constantly. The advantage of comparing the analog power supply in the digital power still has a lot of disputes, two major about I, you of camp, dispute fierce.
The American motor vehicle department Dida is bankrupt The Great Wall claims that has not influenced it
Because of the American motor vehicle company subject Dida CODA Until May 1 claim, apply, go bankrupt, protect, the Great Wall but the intersection of cooperative agreement and Ga that car contract last year stop. The Great Wall had expensive jade to represent while giving an interview on the 13th in automobile sale Shang, Vice President of company, the cooperative agreement is only purpose agreements of both sides, have not made actual progress yet, so the department Dida has not influenced him bankrupt.
According to report of May 16 of ” Beijing Times “, the agreement signed with department Dida last April according to the Great Wall, both sides put first pure motor vehicles of union development into operation in the second quarter of 2014, will introduce on to the market in China, U.S.A.,etc. in the future. Shang jade pointed out expensively, the Great Wall and many companies launched the extensive technological cooperation in motor vehicle, CODA is not an only family, the motor vehicle project that the Great Wall researches and develops independently is in carrying on without any confusion too.
According to the previous agreement, the motor vehicle would be put out in 2014. But the Great Wall respect shows, the technology research and development of motor vehicle is still going on normally, but the Great Wall thinks the motor vehicle unripe, the Great Wall mainly develops the traditional energy car at present, new energy respect develops mixed motive force preferably. At the intersection of Shanghai and car show that hold April, the Great Wall release motor vehicle, Euler of new, but the Great Wall respect shows that there is not a listing plan of batch productino of motor vehicle yet at present.
In addition, likewise Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation of department Dida cooperator shows, both sides cooperate in earlier stage but the short run is exported, the department Dida applies to protect certain influence bankrupt, but influence is not big. Meanwhile, Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation respect points out this will not influence China of the pure motor vehicle of car of Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation to produce and develop....
Since data traffic and Internet appear, in decades continuously, the network traffic of never stopping increases and impels the optical transmission network to develop into unprecedented scale and speed: Present 100G, 200G of future and 400 G. have brought the new challenge to the optical transmission network in flexible business demand based on cloud mode recently: Network resource of dynamic assignment comes in order to respond to the applied demand of the high level in the more high network flexibility and automaticity. Dispose the cloud business with higher speed while when can make IT and operator conquer these challenges in Alcatel Lucent AON wise and farsighted mere network, mobile service and intensive business of the video. Through the intersection of Lucent and high-performance coherent transmission Alcatel and high zero managerial exposed to all network with many the intersection of layer service and exchange capacity, merge at a unified platform, this network can pass and meet various requirements of network connection and employ the environment; Centralized or distributed network intelligence and can guarantee the intersection of network and meet even the intersection of prejudgement and new developing dynamic demand of business all kinds of in real time while being fictitious. Not merely as transmitting resources, or realize the indispensable important constituent element of final user, high in the clouds application and content seamless link in the cloud infrastructure, Alcatel Lucent AON wise and farsighted mere network can all let the operator fully explore the potentiality of its transmission network. Alcatel Lucent AON wise and farsighted mere network, it is all to surmount, lead the cloud!
New challenge: Bear the weight of the cloud business
Under the environment of collinear user at the high movement, connected sum moment at once of today, application and content of the high in the clouds should be all transmitted to a plurality of final users in a manner to distribute according to need. So, while it has augmentability even more that the bandwidth make in optical transmission network,at whose name is must at distributing manner of bandwidth flexibility even more and can consuming, and the latter is idiosyncrasy advantage and demand of the cloud business exactly. The operator needs to construct the optical transmission network with following idiosyncrasy to bear the weight of the cloud business.
The technical significant development of photoelectricity allows more high capacity and transmission scale. All kinds of innovation such as coherent reception, algorithm, it is technological for miniaturization and D/A conversion sampling rate in CMOS it and not last introductions modal synthetically so as to realizing whether bandwidth augmentabilities more high becoming in small volume and power consumption but Yes, and master the new developing technical synergism today can:
Realize the super network capacity of 8.8Tbps, concurrent implementation 200G, the smooth gradual progress of 400G and ultra 400G with the single channel 100G
Prevent exhaustion or optical transmission apparatus ahead of time of optic fibre resources from superposing
Make the operation mode get maximal simplifying and flowing and hydrating in order to deal with growth of the network traffic
Realize T exchanges the network connection and meets bearing the weight of the demand of cloud business in multiple layers more than the superfine
Besides high augmentability, the future optical transmission network also needs to become more flexibly to deal with the unpredictable dynamic flowrate. It be able to need remote carry on programming to customer’s port to support various increasing agreements, and according to the messages of sending end and receiving end, wavelength capacity, service level agreement SLA Wait for the traffic route of dynamic configuration. In addition, the future optical transmission network still needs to have automation even more, including oneself controls, autodiagnosis, repairing oneself, resuming oneself, optimizing oneself, and having ego consciousness further. Through introduce more network intelligence, have unattended network enough to, have flexibility then becomes and realizes the key factor that the cloud bears the weight of optical transmission even more.
The skilled control wavelength when arbitrary direction and arbitrary color are real can be can be so as to obtain incomparable flexibility while disposing all kinds of new developing business at cloud age. Present ROADM technology may be have configurated nature and flexibility, but the one that still lack complete direction independence to realize infrastructure of network is virtual. Now, as if too colourless and undirected to there is not competitive flexible spectrum ROADM CDC-F ROADM It can make the future optical transmission network turn into a genuine cloud and bear the weight of the network that the network technique is improved day by day.
One can be fast all kinds of corresponding business and applied and flexible mere transmission platform can:
Respond to the dynamic demand of the cloud business by flexible allocation of resources
Virtual through the network source to simplify network control, thus let the operator liberated from the complicated detail
Realize the elastic control of the network, thus adapt the dynamic network demand and combine the redistribution network resource in real time
Through to transmitting the persistent self- detection of resource and optimizing oneself, resource management can:
Take measures to guarantee SLA attribute preferably in a plurality of network aspect ruggedization SLA service attribute
Dispose and ensure the business fast in case of not intervening artificially
Carry on prejudgement and avoid to it before the network failure takes place
Implement the life cycle supervisor mode based on network operation center by way of centralized management, from planning to dispose to transport linking
In the past, only drib of transmission network is embedded to control the node, network is generally static. The business alteration needs intervening manually, the slow problem with high operation cost that so has caused and retrieved the cost. As time goes on, the equipment supplier realizes the demand of the operator on the high dynamics, increase the automaticity and flexibility of the transmission network by adding the control plane for each independent network aspect.
Having shortened and retrieved cost cycle greatly in this way, and worked manually through reducinging reduces the operation cost. But meaning the operation cost has not been realized and at all optimized through the intersection of cross-layer and synergism by independent operation mode each other at the each network aspect. Today, the latest innovative technology is hopeful to dispose and have the transmission networks of automation and flexibility even more. Control plane of cross-layer and cross-layer network management can realize the unitary operation mode and reach the shortest cost recovery cycle with the lowest TCO.
Alcatel Lucent AON wise and farsighted mere network has merged the technology of all of above to realize and have high augmentability, 100G and exceeding 100G optical transmission network of high diversity and high dynamics. It includes three following important constituent elements:
AON wise and farsighted mere network of high management
AON wise and farsighted mere network that many layer service exchanges
AON wise and farsighted mere network of intelligence
Figure 1: Business Alcatel Lucent AON wise and farsighted mere network of times of cloud
High and managerial AON wise and farsighted mere network
AON wise and farsighted mere network of high management means the light wave can support the optical transmission infrastructure of high-efficient, intelligence, overall network connection. As using 100G, at the time of 200G and 400G line high-pressure light wave ability, it can offer noticeable economy and expansibility. Because of Alcatel Lucent 400G mere business engine PSE ,The light wave of these line high-pressure can represent the spanking characteristic, reflect on the transmission distance, to on non-linear patience that losses, density and power consumption of plate card.
Alcatel Lucent 400G mere business engine PSE
As the commercial 400G photoelectric chip of first of industry, Alcatel Lucent 400G mere business engine not merely can support the high-speed transmission of the single channel 400Gbps, can also promote the transmission performance of 100G network of today by a wide margin. Based on the fact that Bell Laboratory researches and develops independently, this engine was specially designed for Alcatel Lucent 1830 PSS photon business switchboard, transmission performance of promotion 100G that can be maximum. Light wave that ability of wave shaping can let 1830 PSS transmit extra quantity up to 33% that it has.
Optical layer OAM
Key business born the weight of with the network and to delaying more and more sensitive business, become more and more important to imbed the monitoring point at the place where close to the physical layer.
As the unique OAM function in the system of wavelength division multiplexing of Alcatel Lucent, the wavelength follows the trail of technology Wavelength Tracker Automation that can realize the business of light wave and dispose, start and measure. Through joining the real-time management signal, it can realize recognition and detect of every light wave business under stopping or situation of the regenerated light wave. This technology can offer the whole network for operator to the comprehensive view of all light wave business of any node, every light wave business tracks in real time rapidly, failure isolation, the characteristic is measured and called the police and is concerned with.
Flexible photonic switching
ROADM can realize the business of up/down / direct light wave through the way of remote configuration for a long time. But with the extensive arrangement for ROADM, its limitation begins to be obvious. First of all, ROADM system in initial stage adopts the stationary light wave of the frequency, this means other business can not use these light waves in a situation that there is no on-the-spot light module to change. Secondly, the interface on the light module is distributed into supporting on the multiplexer of the particular direction, can’t support other directions. Moreover, if two pieces of interface on the codirectional need to use the light wave of same frequency, the end on the issue to spectrum competition will take place, the distribution of the light wave needs to accord with ITU standard of 50GHz fetch of wave.
These restrictions can be from too colourless and undirected to have competitive flexible spectrum ROADM CDC-F ROADM Technology solves. Until today, for realize to colourless and undirected and does not there is not competitive support of spectrum at the same time, the manufacturer have to compromising on augmentability of WSS, function and cost. Fortunately, the latest monobasic WSS apparatus can realize CDC-F ROADM framework in the situation of lowering costs effectively, thus support any spectral photonic switching of the arbitrary direction on the premise of not having spectrum competition.
Figure 2: High and managerial AON wise and farsighted mere network: 100G and exceeding 100G optical layer network connection
AON wise and farsighted mere network that many layer service exchanges
The form in which the cloud business is generally undertaken by data is handed over to the final user. Because Alcatel Lucent AON wise and farsighted mere network exchanges the photonic switching, electricity with the function of data interchange and merges together best, business of these clouds can benefit from Alcatel Lucent AON wise and farsighted mere network greatly in realizing final user and high in the clouds the application and course of content seamless link. Data interchange can in original and ecological way Such as Ethernet Offer for data traffic of the application layer and assemble and comb. The electric layer exchanges ‘ Including OTN and SDH/SONET Can realize the maximization of the utilization efficiency of the bandwidth of light wave, support high reliability and high performance of operator’s rank, and mutually operate the seamless with the extant network administration system. Meanwhile, photonic switching can offer the solid foundation for high-speed optical transmission under low power consumption the most.
The optical layer exchanges the plate card Muxponders and Transponders
It is not all business that need mutual independence of speed and agreement, so the operator can be through disposing the plate card Muxponders and Transponders in all aspect directly Come, reduce CAPEX and OPEX. when being in most sending of business and receive identical, this kind of situation is added obviously. Because not each customer’s business needs electric layer OTN The intersection of data interchange and exchange and comb, map to whom circuit examine convey light, have directly through examine customer sub business of speed of layer, for example 100GE maps to the light wave of 100G directly, can realize the very considerable cost is saved.
The electric layer exchanges OTN
As a kind of comprehensive technology, OTN can be on the arbitrary electric layer optical layer, or two layers offer the business to exchange and comb the function at the same time. It offers for bearing the weight of the business of data packet from 1G to 100G and adapts and combs. ODU of the electric layer supports the exchange concurrent implementation of customer’s business of arbitrary particle to pack light wave or the OCh layer effectively.
Integrated data interchange IPT
Recently, most data traffic has generally carried on the point-to-point transparent transmission after combing through simple VLAN or OTN. This way can meet the requirement of most EPL and EVPL data traffic. Only realize the bilaminar function of network connection through the third party’s router or switchboard if necessary. However, if need to support the more advanced one the business need to consider integrating data interchange on the wavelength division multiplexing system to implement the bilaminar network connection. Through integrating data interchange on the wavelength division multiplexing system, not only can realize that combine support ELAN and E-Tree business to the assembling of business of multisource, can also offer QoS of carrier class, the support that Ethernet OAM and SLA controls.
Integrated data interchange IPT of Alcatel Lucent Integrate bilaminar data transmission, exchanging and network connection function on 1830 PSS photon business switchboard on the basis that OTN assembles. This WDM/OTN/Packet can offer the optical transmission from access network to data traffic of backbone network to the future generation to merge the platform. In addition, because set up on already very successful Alcatel Lucent SR OS, the Integrated data interchange IPT of Alcatel Lucent Can also provide data that under a unified network management solution of network connection for operator together with IP/MPLS solution of Alcatel Lucent.
Figure 3: Exchange in multiple layers: Have economic aspects to bear the weight of and comb the business most
AON wise and farsighted mere network of intelligence
The network intelligence of today needs to manage a periodic part to incorporate while using at ordinary times as the network life of optical transmission. Meanwhile, network planning and design tool with optimizing and automatic function can make policy in real time on the premise of not intervening artificially.
Network planning and project tool with optimizing and automatic ability
And the general exchange capacity with 4Tbps or 8Tbps of OTN switchboard is compared, the exchange capacity of WSS is up to 70.4Tbps include 88 light waves up to 100G in 8 directions ,So can valid to carry on business assemble and comb, right away become it essential. Multi-layer network design and optimize tool can guarantee the intersection of 100G and light wave valid to pack. The business that high grade route and feasibility algorithm guarantee the undesirable business assembles and combs can have spread the matrix of crossing of electricity directly. Not only lower costs, can also realize the maximization of the utilization efficiency of the bandwidth in this case. In addition, design and optimize and can also guarantee the business is meeting SLA for example delaying and reliability in multiple layers Prerequisite under enjoy it is optimal route,can’t thus not reduce CAPEX and last life cycle of network.
Accurate, real-time, autonomy and general network are measured
100G network connection needs to rely on the network to monitor, because the help operator that it can be better understands the characteristic of the transmission network. Monitoring of mere OAM various variables including that to light energy, signal to noise ratio and delaying,etc.. Light energy monitor can reach carry single light wave or a series of light waves at the smooth business route, equilibrate the light energy with persistency, self-consistency and automaticity for end. The mere network can be concerned with with the business born the weight of on the light wave too to monitor, thus ensure the quality of transmission of the business.
Map to ODU container course the business, can be through classifying and verifying realizing to G than the assurance of the business SLA of customer of the expert particle, then expand to T than the superfine through the intelligence of control plane. The supervision on one floor and two layer service includes bit error rate, Loss of frame and delaying,etc.. In a situation that people have or not thought and is interfered, control planes can be all enough to drop involuntary response to the sum signal of the network failure through disposing.
In addition cross-layer control plane can send the intersection of optical layer and resource such as frequency spectrum and route to at being automatic The relevant one is predefined and disposed attribute in advance, thus let OTN or electric layer on the senior more level obtain the optical layer information while disposing the business. And this kind of cross-layer perception and related all right ruggedization SLA promote the network reliability. Finally, the intellectual control plane of cross-layer can help the operator to realize the business difference by ruggedization SLA too. Through coordinating the convalescent cross-layer of business with the electric layer on data interchange, optical layer, SLA of different customer’s business can be ensured on the most economic aspect in an all-round way. Integrate and is concerned with and can continue offering the reliability of the business in ruggedization with the data interchange floor one in the future.
Figure 4: Network intelligence: Accelerate the business and dispose the operation automation of concurrent implementation
AON wise and farsighted mere network: It is all to surmount, lead the cloud
The video is being watched through the screen of various size by the final user in a way new and intensive in bandwidth, it is only a fraction among them to broadcast the video business; The video media requests the business VoD Because its getting convenient individualized to become the intersection of video and constant state of business. Meanwhile, the increasingly many Intelligent device is connected to the network; The utility of these apparatuses can usually be defined by the bandwidth used. In era rising in this cloud business, more bandwidth will be assigned in such a manner that easy consumption will be and dynamic. Trend these exert, influence while being a series of to the intersection of optical transmission and network, including in SLA, reliability, QoS and safety,etc..
Not merely as transmitting resources, or realize the indispensable important constituent element of final user, high in the clouds application and content seamless link in the cloud infrastructure, Alcatel Lucent AON wise and farsighted mere network can all let the operator fully explore the potentiality of its transmission network. Alcatel Lucent AON wise and farsighted mere network, it is all to surmount, lead the cloud
DC-DC converter is each electrical supply in the overall system. Though each circuit may do well on the test board, systematic overall performance can not often reach the characteristic result of each circuit. Why? There are a lot of latencies, and the whole grounded system of each circuit is primary reason in the system. The designer needs to be very clear how to earth each circuit, whether store in and earth the cycle the system.
Formed and earthed the cycle when it is connected that more than one over the ground exists in two pieces of circuit and/or the systems. Earth passway, form one coil aerial to receive the interface signal repeatedly ‘ The earthing resistance of the passing of current is converted to the voltage . The consequence of receiving and earthing the cycle induced voltage is, cause the system pair foundation to allow the voltage to be unstable with the superposing of induced voltage. The noise voltage of reaction will become a part of the whole system response!
In addition, earth the cycle and form a collective line and cause the earth current to get back to the ground ground electrode initial point of system pair by more than one passways. For example, many power of computer earthes and linking together each other when disposed through doing and announcing the line publically, but can connect through the routing of data communication. So, the computer often earthes the passway to connect through a the above each other. The multiterm exists while earthing the passway between many computers, its formative disposition is called ” earthes the cycle ” . While earthing the cycle, connecting the foundation will receive the superposed signal on schedule, the forming system interferes with and the noise.
Act as some assemblies in the system by different ground wire, but not other assemblies supply power in the system, or measure, the communication or video system will be produced and earthed the cycle when the ground potential between two pieces of circuit is different in the system. Usually, the electrical potential difference that the over the ground connects will cause the electric current to flow. Know modulator circuit to input like this, present other signals while inputting normally. Fig., in the 1 illustrated example, two earth the instrument to earth through the signal line, and the main land line is interconnected. In this case, 1A electric current will form 0.1V voltage difference between two instrument touch-down points in the circuit.
Fig. 1 is typical to earth the cycle
Because voltage difference exists between the instruments, the signal in the interconnecting lead will add this kind of differential pressure into signal, causing the wire presents the voltage ” The alternating-current hum ” . This hears 60 Hz noise or interferes with competence in video signal in voice signal Piece reason. Another question is the electric current flowing in the cable ground wire of signal. This kind of electric current will spread into cable and apparatus too. The designer always pays attention to the earthing of the grounding terminal, but often not optimization design, thus dispel the degree of sensitivity of the background noise. So at the ground path, guarantee, earth the intersection of cycle and electric current, will lead to the fact system it produces issues to be most fundamental requirement inside the correct design system.
Another example, it is the Q...
A lot of military RF systems, such as radar and communication system, are using a monolithic microwave integrated circuit MIMIC, MMIC Typological power amplifier. MMIC PA utilizes GaN transistor-resistor logic to already obtain enhancement RF characteristic that has the prospect very much, but its in-service behavior is the maximal influence of the thermal resistance. Backing material that the majority of this kind of resistance comes from the integrated circuit is jointed with thermocouple of GaN transistor-resistor logic junction thermal junction The placement, if the thermal behavior of this junction point and base is bad, then the temperature will rise, the characteristic will be reduced.
Nearest DARAP shuts some heat transport NJTT near The work has already verified the first high electron mobility transistor HEMT based on gallium nitride of the adamas of a kind of industry . In the Er early test, can use the device as to the commerce, this gallium nitride transistor-resistor logic based on adamas has already shown the temperature of junction point reduced by a wide margin. The corresponding transistor-resistor logic has already improved thermal behavior by a wide margin, this probably further improves the characteristic of RF system.
According to DARPA project manager: ” these gallium nitrides HEMT based on adamas may be facilitated than the small RF power amplifier PA of new generation of 3 times of existing latest GaN amplifier size . Smaller amplifier can produce the characteristic of smaller lighter with lower power consumption in weight size. In addition, this kind of PA can realize output power of 3 time, the acceptance range of making the signal of the communication system stronger or radar system is farther. Almost all RF systems can utilize this gallium nitride amplifier based on adamas to obtain the more heavy-duty, more high-efficiency and combined benefit of small dimension. ”
In MMIC PA, the rising most rapid in temperature takes place in place of a micron under junction point, concern the heat conductivity of the whole crystal plate directly. “If use a kind of high thermal conductivity base kept in close touch with GaN, can let us obtain superb heat resistance and heat sink. We hope this research will improve the modern heavy-duty RF system dispelled the heat and limited by a wide margin. ”
Utilize a new epitaxy transmission method, TriQuint semi-conductive company can already remove GaN from the base of its growth, and locate it on a kind of artificial growth, adamas base especially prepared kept in close touch with it. This man-made diamond has the most high thermal conductivity in known artificial materials, it is the ordinary semiconductor material – -10 times of silicon.
This NJTT project is that DARPA heats ME TMT One of the jobs in the project, is devoted to reducing the thermal resistance that the multiple unit semiconductor device nears the joint. NJTT project starts to be developing and shifting heat through the epitaxy way based on GaN and SiC on the adamas base in 2011, and make adamas direct growth way shift heat through SiC heat erosion. The goal of this TMT is to develop and optimize new nanometer construction material and other newest progress used for hot supervising system.
The global and leading complete interlinkage products supplier Molex Company claims to introduce the air power type DDR3 DIMM socket and high DDR3 DIMM memory module socket of ultra low-side Product mix, two product series are suitable for requiring tight and severe memorizer application in telecommunication, network, storage system, advanced computing platform, industrial control and medical equipment.
DDR3 is for supporting 800 -Data rate of 1600 Mbps frequency 400 – 800 MHz And DDR DRAM interfacing made, this data rate is twice that of DDR2 interface. Adopt standard 1.5V working voltage, DDR3 has compared with DDR2 and reduced 30% of the power consumption. It is lower than standard design the base of DDR3 DIMM socket of Molex, can use the intersection of maximum and base lower than high module of low-side very much of 2.80 mm highly in the intersection of ATCA and the intersection of blade and system, the new DDR3 DIMM socket also has the contact resistance of low level of 10 mΩ, in order to use and register DIMM module and reduce the power consumption in the knife-blade server.
Molex products manager Douglas Jones shows: “With continue, increase to higher demand of bandwidth, can with fast the intersection of rate and than being it sacrifices valuable spaces or power to be essential transmit data. Use DDR3 DIMM socket, let our customer not merely fully utilize the advantage that the most high-performance memorizer interconnects, and can keep or reduce existingly and capsulate the size and reduce the power consumption. ”
Molex air power type DDR3 DIMM socket has fair-form outer cover and occludes and designs, in order to realize the air current is maximized, and dispel the agglomerative hot air during operation. Occlude and be able to realize the quick action to design in human environmentology, and remove the high density memory module easily. 2.40 Optimize the vertical space the low base of mm, can design the height of the module of socket in a flexible way. The air power type DDR3 DIMM socket is used for very much the low-side is connected14.26 mm under high pressure , the low-side is connected22.03 mm under high pressure , low-side high SMT 21.34 mm And the low-side height SMT 14.20 mm very much Height, compared with standard crimp terminal station, these needle pass compliance pins which press the connection socket are smaller, save valuable the intersection of PCB and space effectively, relatively electronic circuit design of high density with suitable for. Molex all air power type DDR3 DIMM socket accord with RoHS standard, the fund of Model SMT does not contain halogen.
High only 1.10mm the base of the high DDR3 DIMM socket of Molex ultra low-side, it is the lowest to be in the industry. This socket offers the vertical space of highest 20.23 mm on PCB, is used for installing the high density DIMM, is suitable for demanding to accord with the application that ATCA circuit board is with normal machinery, the component height of one side of PCB board can’t exceed 21.33 mm before this norm is required. The angle of the occluded movement which exceeds the high DDR3 DIMM socket of low-side is minor, required PCB spaces are less than standard DIMM too, have not only improve the air current but also realized the component pressed close to even more to install. Do not have halogenic socket and have high-temperature nylon outer cover and locking device that glass packs newly, can use wave soldering and high-temperature infrared solder-reflow operation.
A globalized open standard of ZigBee agreement, in order to realize that examine, accuse of the numerous application of the function and offer the wireless connections of low power consumption. ZigBee is by flexible, extensible network topology, comprehensive arrangement and intellectual route technology, high trouble-proof ability easy to install, have strengthened IEEE802.15.4 function. ZigBee also has a rigorous safety measure, all right and other wireless technology, for instance bluetooth coexists peacefully with WiFi,etc. in the same work environment.
Safety and reliability of communication
The wireless transmission distance of ZigBee is closely related to work environment. When the standard wireless control module is in 0dBm output power, outdoor operating distance is reachable 450 meters, but indoors, because effects such as the absorption, reflection, diffraction, standing wave of wall and other objects,etc., the distance is shortened greatly; Output power greater than 15dBm the intersection of power and operating distance of module can increase to invite by 10 times. In addition, mesh configuration,it is tree-like without being formed a cluster also can last operating distance topological structure. Because communication will be received wirelessly and interfered with and worse sending / receiving conditions is destroyed, ZigBee guarantees the reliability of communication with multiple technology. First of all, ZigBee network adopts and encodes the mechanism during transmission over radio. It is orthogonal phase-shift keying QPSK that adopt in 2.4GHz frequency band Modulation technique, transform 4 data symbols to 32 bit slice arrays at the same time. Kind, has already enabled with the one -channel, there are other wireless signals at one time, ZigBee news can reach the destination place completely too. Secondly, its transmission adopts the carrier sense taking the conflict to avoid, multipoint access scheme. To be simple, node should first intercept signal channel before not sending, see it unblocked. If the signal channel is working, the node is being intercepted again after delaying time, so go on until the smooth way of signal channel begins file repeatedly. Secondly, after news reaches the destination place, the receiving apparatus should be given an acknowledgement indicator to show news has been already received. If the transmitting equipment has not received the acknowledgement indicator, it will send original news in certain time interval again. Have in ZigBee ” The safe tool box ” To offer the high safety, the main measure is as follows, insert the control table: There is only a predefined one ” Friendly ” The node could join the network; 128 AES group coding techniques: A kind of high and safe cipher key group encryption system, some wireless microcontrollers also have a hardware security function. News upgrades the timer: Refuse the news in overtime, prevent invading news and attacking the network outside
Is one, any the editing of network?
Editing Orchestration ,Present it to the world of art first, mean that arranges various music, dance element according to certain purpose, in the hope of reaching the preferably result. Amplify it to IT network management category, mean that regards user’s needs as object, carries on ordered arrangement and organization of various network service units, make each constituent element equilibrium of the network coordinate, produce the service that can meet user’s requirement. The editing of network actually uses a course from user to network pipeline of the business service of abstract language definition of network. Get after the editing, can meet the intersection of automation and the intersection of network service and need to dispose requirement, have fast dispose, dynamic alignment, ability that reuse. show as in Fig. 1
Network service editing of Fig. 1
Second, why did need network edit?
Calculating era in the cloud, IT administrative staff faces various difficult problems show as in Fig. 2 . What kind of influence these difficult problems have brought to network service, how does this think about the editing of network?
Three predicaments of the service of Fig. 2
Take routine arrangement of one enterprise IT business as examples, it will dispose a Exchange mail server, and provide service for the market department. The system manager carries on the arrangement for the computational resource at first, then the network administrator as requested disposes the network resource which inserts the switchboard, and allocate the network in assembling and upper the node depending upon need. While considering the personnel of department of market use this service, may be internal from the company, branched office, going out to move ways such as adoption LAN, VPN of different places such as official working,etc. to insert, need, allocate the network in the intersection of router and the intersection of gateway, fire wall,etc. and node also. show as in Fig. 3 .
Dispose the mode conventionally in Fig. 3 IT business
In this operation, the automation of the computational resource is handed over because the server is virtual and technical to employ easier realization extensively, the system manager can apply for VM resource service and dispose Exchange VM image in a manner to help oneself. The intersection of point-like structure in computational resource, network and their more complicated netted and layered structure, realize it is more difficult for the perfect automation to dispose; Hand operation or relying on the operation of the management tool under the regular mode, need to find out about the real-time state of the network very much such as being topological ,There may be very many network node ranges involved, it is very apt to make mistakes.
It serves to be unalterable it serves dilatation, servers to be virtual incoming VM move at the same time ,Require network configuration thereupon dynamic alignment, the intersection of craft and network under the regular mode operate, cause whom business serve break down for a long time, can’t already meet the requirement of present business.
Need set up, serve by a similar Exchange for other department, from designing to implementing, all work need restarting. Off-The-Shelf basic framework and achievement of working that unable to multiplex from the existing service.
After handing over the network service through the editing ability of the network, the anticipated time that we can dispose realizing a business network, only shorten to several minutes, thus realize that disposes ability show as in Fig. 4 in network automation .
Dispose the mode in IT business after Fig. 4 uses the editing of network service
Three, design of the editing target of the network
The course of editing of network, can be interpreted as organization and mix of the abstract network target briefly, deployment of distribution including network resource,etc.. The abstract design of the network target can split the following several respects.
1. Carry on the network equipment function abstractly
Under the present technological environment, what IT controller faced is no longer unalterable apparatus environment, the infrastructure may increase fast with demand. This kind of growth includes quantitative growth, include the increase of the manufacturer, facility type too. In order to shield the difference of different manufacturer, different type apparatus, make IT controller’s energy focus on In Service, the ones that must make sure to network equipment business function are abstract.
View from the point of realizing technically, have two kinds show as in Fig. 5 to the network / the apparatus function abstractly .
1 Because of the intersection of SDN and associated technology to holding in place with a net / abstract in apparatus function. The core of SDN is to concentrate on programming the behavior of the network, should carry on behavior and ability of the network equipment abstractly first. Such as OpenFlow being to make abstract network transmitting the control ability because of flow simple in technology. Above foundation this, can so as to abstract on the basis of ACL, QwS, VLAN, VPN,etc. function of shedding.
2 On the basis of the traditional network technique management agreements, such as SNMP/CLI,etc. The ones that realized to the apparatus / network function are abstract.
Though the market of global mobile phone still increases at the speed of unit’s figure of every season, but the production of the intellectual mobile phone is increased sharply continuously, with the introduction of the mobile phone of new generation, the intellectual mobile phone can offer more functions continuously without needing to increase the size and weight greatly, motive force come from the new mobile communication network behind these new products, such as 4G and the intersection of LTE and technical introduction, have quick speed of download and good to move the intersection of Internet and experience and newest the intersection of service and the intersection of picture and first-class No. most people, just as expectancy, the nearly most industry news is rounded on the function of the newest mobile phone, such as battery endurance, brightness of display screen, color and definition,etc., but on earth what kind semi-conductive structure diamond brings such stiking products?
A very important part is the radio frequency RF in the modern intellectual mobile phone Electric-wave filter, just as its basic principle, the electric-wave filter is mainly applied to the frequency not needed through needing and refusing, in order to make a lot of receivers in the mobile phone only deal with the anticipated signal. In the past, the mobile phone usually works only in a few frequency bands of the particular area of the whole world, but to the modernized mobile phone, will basically be in a plurality of wireless frequency band work in the same time, including mobile communication, bluetooth Bluetooth , WiFi and GPS,etc.,hope to design too to be can at the whole world products worked under areas and telecommunication operators different different serve and manufacturer, want, let mobile phone in Multiband and area work represent mobile phone higher and higher to requirement that radio frequency filter.
In before that several generation wireless at technology,it is require more easily to reach not to filter, may need to use only by surface acoustic wave filter, but perform and enter CDMA and 3G with operator’s network gradually, fit China’s Hi-Tech and find the film bulk acoustic wave resonator FBAR that the company has Technology suits U.S.A. PCS and some other frequency bands to require the high challenge filtered very much, in order to utilize the present 4G/LTE service, the intellectual mobile phone becomes more complicated, so mobile phone manufacturers have already begun to expand and adopted FBAR technology of Avago to solve followingly and discuss the unique problem that 4G/LTE faces soon.
The radio frequency filter challenges 1: Can be in the 4G/LTE cell-phone of a plurality of frequency band work
The latest intellectual mobile phone products can be in a plurality of frequency band jobs of the whole world in the design, Multiband intellectual overall dimensions of mobile phone will greater than last generation, in keep, give radio frequency the intersection of forward end and the same space of circuit to join more electric-wave filter, so very obviously, the electric-wave filter must be pygmy, with the assistance of Microcap miniature packaging technique, FBAR electric-wave filter can be sealed and filled with the most limited application of space of foot through the chip level. It is the occurring matrix type material because of FBAR, can offer very good handling capacity of power without needing to use the common parallel structure like SAW electric-wave filter, in addition, the size of FBAR device will shrink with improvement of the frequency too, this makes FBAR very suitable for 2300MHz to 2700MHz at present, and the frequency band application of new 4G/LTE of 3.5GHz in the future.
Perhaps the most important characteristic can support high challenge assigned precipitous filtering curve and remarkable out-of-band inhibitory potencies of frequency band in FBAR technology, it mention PCS situations applied, emission frequency among them on U.S.A. before and below interval among receiving frequency is getting narrower very, this characteristic is employed to 4G/LTE but the speech is even more important, the reason is launched and the interval among the receiving frequencies is narrower. In addition, intellectual mobile phone of now must in have 2G/3G now work in the crowded frequency spectrum that radio frequency serve closely too, also avoid influencing even cutting off the interference of the data service, usually frequently intersegmental crossover frequency is probably counting MHz, even there is not a guard band at all sometimes.
Fig. 1 FBAR electric-wave filter response characteristic
One of the value advantages that FBAR electric-wave filter brings can be found out by Band 13 environment which U.S.A. use, this piece use as frequency band that LTE serve from policeman, fire control and meet an urgent need while being other by Company by Verizon new public safety radio service that processing mechanism use only 2MHz in frequency band, in order to prevent the interference PSR from running, the mobile phone that LTE standard should work on Band 13 frequency band must reduce the transmitted power greatly, but the reducing of the power will obviously influence network efficiency, reduce number of users and service quality that can be served, it even causes the disconnecting to reduce the throughput of the data greatly, bring supper-fast to transfer temperature compensation the intersection of FBAR and duplexer and high the intersection of linearization and power amplifier receive in the good integrated the intersection of forward end and module that control on environment through combine, Avago create one can let Band 13 the intersection of frequency band and the intersection of Mobile and full power work but will not interfere with the products that PSR run, the characteristic of FBAR duplexer can be said to be one of the successful keys to this kind of product.
The radio frequency filter challenges 2: Run in 4G/LTE intellectual mobile phone of the high data rate
The looks is relatively served in 3G, the same data bulk makes the speed of download of 4G/LTE and probably reaches 10 doubly all right, that is to say that can be reached 10 times during the same time by the data bulk downloading, several kinds of methods can be used for realizing more high data rate, 4G/LTE will use different modulation modes in accordance with detected signal intensity, to be simple, the higher the signal to noise ratio is, the higher the data rate is, such as being converted to the QAM16/64 modulation by QPSK. In combining the Multiband 4G/LTE cell-phone of a plurality of duplexers through the single-pole multiple-throw switch, the detected signal may be overlow and influencing the data rate, the low insertion loss of FBAR helps the maximization to input signal intensity, bring the throughput of more high data, thus get better user’s experiencing and more high data capacity.
Adopt the modulating mobile phone of the frequency demultiplication multiplexing and use and allow the duplexer that the clear signal transmits and receives at the same time, because launch and the receive filter is connected to the same aerial port, it is very important that the electric-wave filter between each other is isolated, higher segregation will receive the noise of the frequency band to minimize, and just as discussing above, this can raise SNR and data rate.
Fig. 2 2.3GHz is the guard band of 2.7GHz frequency band 4G/LTE service
Another method to improve the data rate is to get together through the carrier, the carrier is got together to improve and download the data rate in order to the simultaneous working more than a frequency band, some new LTE frequency bands occupy relatively smaller frequency spectrum, such as Band 25 5MHz ,So this is that a Network Operator can improve the method of the message capacity effectively. Each transmission and can receive simultaneous working, can use switch of frequency band, thus combine each launching and receive filter and get on the same aerial port with multiplexer, dispose it while combining with the multiplexer, FBAR electric-wave filter of Avago can offer the route of low loss of signal, contribute to raising the data rate to the maximum extent.
The radio frequency filter challenges 3: A plurality of wireless signals of simultaneously using of intellectual mobile phone
Too very difficult to have the intellectual mobile phone that Wi-Fi is wired the function to find at present, it is different to depend on the mobile phone operating frequency, if has not passed appropriate Shelving, the signal that the mobile phone sends may interfere with the normal operation of Wi-Fi, as an example, LTE Band 7 2500MHz 2570MHz of Europe Emission frequency on close to European Wi-Fi frequency of utilization 2401MHz~2488MHz Above, see Fig. 2.
Use intellectual mobile phone as Wi-Fi at the focus, Wi-Fi know the intersection of 4G/LTE and wireless signal simultaneous working, without remarkable filter capacity, Wi-Fi transceiver probably covered or influenced by the fact that Band 7 takes LTE signal transmission frequently, ACMD-6107 duplexer of Avago offers sufficient protection, the interference will not take place in Wi-Fi passway of the high frequency to allow to run, other competitive electric-wave filter products can’t offer required out-of-band damping capacity effectively, may the intersection of Wi-Fi and channel can’t use cause, and ACPF-7124 Wi-Fi of Avago coexist electric-wave filter form a complete set and make up, may offer and up to even surmount the outstanding characteristic that the system requires.
The most mobile phones of today support GPS yet at the same time, even GLONASS serves, because GPS/GLONASS signal is usually very low in power, probably here – 125dBm ~ -150dBm, so the degree of sensitivity that all signals which is close to GPS frequency may influence GPS/GLONASS receiver, AGPS-F001 prefilter because has precipitous filtering and broadband damping capacity while adding LNA module, so can offer the remarkable and out-of-band signal of mobile network, PCS and WiFi to cover ability and good linear characteristic.
FBAR technical superiority
Battery duration whether one used for, carry on the intersection of mobile phone and performance test and comparative important characteristic each other often, receiving the side, we discuss lower insertion loss of FBAR how be through compensate on the intersection of radio frequency and forward end combining the intersection of great and loss that Multiband bringing, supporting high data rating of 4G/LTE cell-phone, another advantage is, through making the mobile phone relatively measure the small signal, expand coverage of mobile communication, avoid causing worse receiving capability even disconnecting. Launch side, lower insertion loss of transmission electric-wave filter representative it downs the intersection of the power amplifier and required output power to be lower in the same the intersection of aerial and transmitted power, the looks, relatively in other electric-wave filter technologies, the insertion loss that Band 4 duplexer of Avago brings is improved probably in 0.2dB 0.5dB, save the current consumption up to 50mA in other words, so can offer more long battery service life and holding time.
When serve on the basis of 3G as the great majority are employed, only a few frequency bands can benefit from FBAR technology, with the popularization of the intellectual mobile phone of 4G/LTE Multiband, FBAR technical characteristic advantage, such as the low insertion loss, precipitous filtering curve, size of the high-isolated and minimization,etc. have already been introduced into this technical reason fast as all main intellectual hand machine manufacturers, adopt FBAR technical electric-wave filter at present, duplexer and multiplexer products have already been introduced into the intellectual mobile phone designs of areas such as U.S.A., Europe and Asia,etc. 15 different working frequency bands, with filtering the appearance that is challenged newly, FBAR technology will continue becoming and offer the prior choice answered, that is to say, FBAR technology has already become the mainstream.
Recently, General Electric announces, the varied embedded computation module of chip development of embedded APU based on that AMD releases newly, benefit from advanced framework and a great deal of bright spot characteristics of the chip, this computation module is expected to apply to a large number of industry and embedded environment. This piece of news is that it is encouraged that one is enormous to wandering up and down in AMD of the low ebb last year – -The embedded APU achievement is being turned into the business advantage fast. But more important, this means an open AMD transition full-scale drama is performed formally from embedded chip business.
Embedded APU aims at the future
From CPU to APU to embedded APU and then, deep and serious traditional x86 impress is being stripped gradually on AMD. Begin from APU, AMD devoted to the intersection of integration and development of chip, CPU and GPU being ingenious to joint together, undertake to calculate the task together, has realized the more high-efficiency, calculation advantage of the low energy consumption. The appearance of embedded APU, not merely mean AMD has finished the evolution again of the integration chip, and make the business of AMD begin to touch broader field.
Before choosing AMD embedded chip in General Electric, Sony announces that adopts the customization APU chip of AMD in the game host computer PS4 of future generation, it is not unique, Microsoft announces too that adopts the solution that AMD will be offered in Xbox 720 released soon – -The technical superiority of embedded APU integration CPU GPU, make AMD nearly monopolize the market of game machine. Influenced by the advantage that the business of the game machine is increasing constantly, the stock price in week of AMD form rises sharply by 36%, hit the top in ten years.
According to the estimation by IDC data, by 2016, the global embedded apparatus quantity will rise to 9,600 million, the embedded chip with high capacity and efficiency will have bright prospects. As to AMD, trying water on the market of game machine succeeds in, combine with the technical superiority that is improving, promoting constantly, help AMD to seek greater development opportunity in broader market facing future.
Just not long ago, AMD claim, establish half customize business segments SCBU ,On the basis of intellectual property rights with abundant domain such as the microprocessor, figure core, multimedia,etc., customize and develop the unique exclusive scheme – -PS4 made-to-order APU is the first successful case of this department – -This measure reveals AMD resolution of the embedded field of deeping plough. In addition, the return one after another of outstanding technicians, exhibiting one’s skill in the embedded field for AMD too establishes important talent and technological foundation.
” Troika ” Pull and make the transition
Have an effect gradually in the field of embedded chip, mean AMD takes the first step making the transition. , continuously under the dispirited background, this step declare AMD limited to traditional the intersection of PC and business again in the intersection of PC and market, begin to strive for more pluralistic business overall arrangement.
“The change of maximum is now we are a SoC Company in the past year. Future will be like this too, the technology that we will preferably offer according to one’s own market. ” AMD senior vice-president and concurrently global general manager Lisa Su of banking department say so when being interviewed by media at the beginning of the year. According to the goal of AMD, before the end of 2013, the camp of the embedded chip accepts the proportion and promotes from 5% to 20%, look according to the present growth momentum, it is not a difficult matter to realize this goal.
Except the embedded field, there is clear marching and planning too on market of two high growth that AMD aims at in addition, and form and pull AMD and make the transition in an all-round way from this ” Troika ” . To exceeding the walkie customer end products of low power consumption of dull and stereotyped computer and other mobile equipments, as APU named Temash will appear in mid-May; But the chip facing high density server field, the ones that will emerge in 2014, processor based on ARM framework are verified on one’s body.